At the Site of Mass Murder

In July 1941, when he was barely 28 years old, Berthold Beitz moved to Borysław in German-occupied Eastern Galicia to assume responsibility ...

European Union

Physical chemist Robert Havemann and Dr. Georg Groscurth, later senior physician at the Robert Koch Hospital in Berlin-Moabit, became ...

Destination: Switzerland

Luise Meier (b. 1885) of Berlin-Grunewald empathized with her Jewish neighbors who were desperately trying to flee Germany. A devout Catholic, ...

Struggling Underground from Day to Day

Ilse Basch was forced to leave secondary school in 1935; she graduated from a commercial school and worked as a secretary. After 1933, ...

Survival in Disguise – From Poland to Berlin

Donata and Eberhard Helmrich were married in 1933 in Berlin. Both were staunch opponents of the Nazi regime and helped their Jewish friends ...

Faith and Civil Courage

Neither the Protestant nor the Catholic Church in Germany engaged in any large-scale resistance to the persecution of the Jews after 1933. ...

Help in the Factory

Metal turner Wilhelm Daene was a Social Democrat and an active trade unionist in Thuringia until 1933. Starting in 1935 he worked in Alfred ...

With Forged Documents

Gerd Ramm was a businessman with German national leanings. In the 1930s he bought several companies in Berlin and northern Germany—in ...

A Network of Helpers

In July 1942, Elisabeth Abegg could do nothing to prevent her long-time close friend Anna Hirschberg, a Christian woman of Jewish descent, ...

Odyssey through Germany

Jewish journalist Wilhelm Meyer was an editor for the Ullstein publishing house until 1933. When he died in the fall of 1942, friends ...

A Rescuer in Uniform

Karl Plagge, a chemical engineer from Darmstadt, had joined the Nazi Party in 1931, but by 1938 at the latest he distanced himself from ...

Help for an Escapee from Majdanek

Robert Eisenstädt, a young technician from Hanau, wanted to go into hiding in 1942 to avoid deportation. He had already been imprisoned ...

Spontaneous Assistance

In late 1942, Maria Nickel, a mother of two young boys, saw forced workers wearing the Yellow Star near her apartment in Berlin-Kreuzberg. ...

Nazi Victims Helping the Hunted

The family of the well-known Social Democratic Party (SPD) politician and journalist Ernst Heilmann lived in Berlin-Kreuzberg. Heilmann, ...

Ask for “Tegel”

In April 1933, the theologian Harald Poelchau assumed the position of chaplain in the Berlin-Tegel prison. From the very beginning he ...

Hidden in the Bread Car

When Edith Felix, a young Czech Jew, returned from doing forced labor to her room in Berlin-Friedrichshain, she learned that her Jewish ...

Fled a Death Transport

The Jewish brothers Michael and Jurek Rozenek grew up near Krakow. After the Wehrmacht occupied Poland, their family was forced into the ...

From Parsonage to Parsonage

Born in 1888, Max Krakauer ran a major film distribution company as of 1918 in Leipzig, where he met his wife Karoline (“Ines”) Rosenthal. ...